Article published in Electric Transmission Week, March 8, 2004
"Midwest ISO plans to hold a seminar May 7 in its St. Paul, Minn., office to highlight two technologies it believes could be used for new transmission projects in the Midwest ISO area." Article in Electric Transmission Week, April 5, 2004.
Chris Baltimore, Reuters, August 25, 2003
U.S. consumers would have to foot a $100 billion bill to upgrade the nation's rickety electric transmission grid but could reap five-fold savings from cheaper power costs, according to an industry report released on Monday. The Electric Power Research Institute, a utility-funded group based in Palo Alto, California, said sizable investment is needed to prevent a repeat of the massive Aug. 14 blackout, which left more than 50 million people without power and exposed the dilapidated state of the nation's power grid.
Article in Electric Transmission Week, April 5, 2004
Midwest ISO plans to hold a seminar May 7 in its St. Paul, Minn., office to highlight two technologies it believes could be used for new transmission projects in the Midwest ISO area. The technologies, both developed in Russia, are high surge impedance loading (HSIL) transmission line design and magnetically controlled reactors (MCRs, ETW, 3/8). Neither of these technologies has been applied yet in the United States, and this will be the first seminar in this country focusing exclusively on them.
U.S. Climate Change Technology Program – Technology Options for the Near and Long Term, November 2003, Page 34ff.
Construction of U.S. transmission above 230 kV is expected to increase by only 6% (in line-miles) during the next 10 years, while demand is expected to increase more than 20%. The resulting increase in the intensity of use of existing facilities will increase energy losses and transmission congestion, and is likely to cause grid reliability problems and threaten the continued growth of wholesale electricity trade. Energy losses in the U.S. T&D system were 7.2% in 1995, accounting for 2.5 quads of primary energy and 36.5 MtC.
Prof. George A. Evdokunin, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Russia: Presentation at Midwest ISO - Expanding Edge Seminar, St. Paul, MN – September 16, 2004
AC overhead lines are generally the cheapest and most reliable means of electrical energy transmission. Nevertheless traditional design limits their transfer distance and/or capacity. Among widely used artificial means to improve traditional lines parameters are series capacitive compensation of the inductive reactance of lines, SVC’s and so forth. But such compensation is costly and creates difficulties for system operation. But overhead line transfer distance and/or capacity can also be increased by observing some new rules for the line design. (See a synopsis here.)
HSIL in Brazil (illustration)
A. Zelitchenko; E.E. Kilga, Transmission & Distribution (Overland Park: Nov 1995), Vol. 47, No. 12, p. 62 (4 pp.)
Several transmission lines had to be relocated in conjunction with the installation of a 230-kV bus-sectionalizing breaker at Bonneville Power Administration's Tacoma 500/230-kV substation. For Tacoma City Light, the Tacoma-Cowlitz No. 2 230-kV transmission line had to be relocated from Bay No. 9 to Bay No. 3, which required construction of a new section of 230-kV line. Three potential configurations were considered for this relocation. The one chosen was found to be preferable for a number of reasons, including: 1. It eliminated crossing over the 230-kV transformer-bank feeders and existing 115-kV and 12.5-kV circuits. 2. It included a lower cost for the poles and foundation. 3. Less time would be needed for construction activities because this work could be performed by TCL crews with their equipment.
1-Subconductor-Per-Phase Compact Section of 230-kV, 3-phase Tacoma-Cowlitz No.2 OTL, Tacoma Power, Tacoma Public Utilities, Tacoma, WA.
Now it's time for the next step: from 200 yards–– to 200 miles!
John Hanger, President and CEO, Citizens for Pennsylvania's Future (PennFuture), Peter Adels, General Counsel, Citizen's for Pennsylvania's Future (PennFuture), November 4, 2003
While the investigation into the August 14 blackout continues, problems with reactive power are being looked into and given lots of attention - apparently for good reason.
Professor A.M. Bryantsev (see Synopsis here).
H.L. Thanawala, GEC Review, Volume 1, No.2, 1985, p. 117
The control of reactive power permits better use of transmission plant and improves the quality of supply. These advantages cannot be realized fully unless the control is exercised rapidly, i.e. by using a static var compensator (SVC) which has a high speed of response.
K. Kahle, CERN, February 2000
The electrical installations of the SPS pulsed electrical network consist of power converters for dipoles and quadrupoles, RF cavities and the north experimental area. Large pulsing loads like these can only be connected to the 18 kV electrical network if a Static Var Compensator takes care of reactive power compensation, voltage control and harmonic filtering. This paper explains the underlying principles of static var compensation and gives an overview of the existing two saturated reactor compensators. Finally, a project description is given for the planned installation of a third Static Var Compensator for the SPS pulsed network which will be based on Thyristor Controlled Reactor technology.
Prof. Alexander M. Bryantsev, Moscow Power Institute, Smolensk; Mark D. Galperin, PhD, Expanding Edge LLC, San Francisco; Prof. George A. Evdokunin, St. Petersburg State Technical University, St. Petersburg, Andrei G. Dolgopolov, Sc.D, All-Russia Electrical Engineering Institute, Moscow
Article published in Electric Transmission Week, March 8, 2004
When the blackout hit the U.S. Northeast and eastern Canada last August the role of reactive power in assuring the stability of the power grid was highlighted. Now U.S. researchers are encouraging utilities to take a look at a technology used in Russia.
Showcase of Innovation, Denver, June 6, 2004.
Russian Military Technology Award given to CERC/ELUR
Final Report prepared December 1997 by NY State Electric & Gas Corporation in conjunction with Power Technologies, Inc. (500 pages; 38 meg pdf.)
A six-phase line is a viable approach for increasing power flows in limited right-of-ways.
S.V. Krylov, Moscow, Russia (presented by V.S. Rashkes, Plymouth, MN USA), Midwest ISO - Expanding Edge Seminar, St. Paul, MN – September 16, 2004
An increase in transmitting capacity determined by stability conditions can be achieved in long EHV overhead transmission lines through reducing surge impedance of the line. Surge impedance significantly decreases at reducing the interphase distance. Gradients of electric field on surfaces of phase conductors can be kept within acceptable limits through the increase in the number of subconductors in bundled phase and their optimum mutual positioning. (See snynopsis here.)
The Midwest ISO hosted a seminar on two transmission technologies last month at its St. Paul, Minn., office. Both of the technologies— high surge impedance loading(HSIL) overhead lines and magnetically controlled reactors (MCR)— were developed in Russia and have been successfully used there and in other countries (ETW, 3/2). Article in Electric Transmission Week, October 11, 2004.